Paternity Testing
1.  Can the paternity test be performed without the mother?

YES.  You can obtain accurate results without testing the mother.  However, in a small percentage of cases, not
including the mother's sample can lead to inconclusive results, therefore it is always recommended to include the
mother in the test, if she is available.

2.  Is a blood sample required?

NO.  Paternity testing can be performed using a buccal (cheek) swab.  It is completely non-invasive, painless and

3.  How are the samples collected?

A sterile swab, very similar to a q-tip, is rubbed on the inside of the cheek from the child and the alleged father.  If
practical, the mother should also be sampled, however this is not mandatory for an accurate analysis.  

4.  Are you collecting saliva for analysis when a buccal swab is done?

NO.  While saliva is collected on the swab, it is actually the epithelial (cheek) cells that are being collected for

5.  Is the cheek/buccal swab accurate?

YES.  Because DNA is the same in every cell in your body, analysis performed on cheek cells is just as
accurate as analysis performed on blood.

6.  How old must a child be to perform DNA testing?

There are no age restrictions.  DNA testing can be performed on individuals of any age.  Newborns can be tested
using either a buccal (cheek) swab or umbilical cord blood, both are easy and painless procedures.

7.  Can a paternity test be performed before the child is born?

Yes.  However, it is more expensive and does involve some medical risk, therefore anymother interested in
prenatal testing should consult with her OB/GYN.  There are 2 procedures by which to collect prenatal DNA
samples; Chorionic Villi Sampling (CVS), performed at ~10-13 weeks of pregnancy or Amniocentesis at ~14-24
weeks of age.  

8.  Can paternity testing also show if the mother is not really the mother?

YES.  Although it's rare, there have been several cases in which non-maternity has been found while   
performing a routine paternity test.

9.  Can parentage be determined when the alleged father is deceased?

YES.  There are several options.  Blood or buccal samples collected at the time of death can be used, tissue
specimens from previous surgeries or an autopsy may be used, his parents can be tested to determine if they are
grandparents, or the body can be exhumed and a tissue sample taken for testing.

10.  What if the mother and alleged father are related?

It does not matter, the results are still valid.

11.  What if the two alleged fathers are related (i.e brothers, father-son)?

It is possible for both individuals to have the same or similar genetics markers, therefore the laboratory should be
informed of these circumstances, as extended testing may have to be performed.

12.  Can the alleged father's test results be used in another paternity case?

YES.  But ONLY if the alleged father agrees to it or there is a court order.

13.  What if the mother, child and alleged father(s) live in different cities/states?

We can accommodate each participant of the same test with separate appointment times (for legal tests) and or
locations across the U.S.  If you are utilizing a private paternity test we can split the kit up and send each portion
to a different address.  Each kit is identified by a unique laboratory accession number so that all samples can be
tested together once received back in the laboratory.  To order a split kit, be sure to add the "Split Kit" option to
your shopping cart.  You can enter the additional shipping addresses in the comments box at the checkout page.

14.  Can different biological specimens such as a buccal swab from a child and a blood sample from an
adult be used for the same test?

YES.  Because DNA is the same in every cell in your body, analysis performed on cheek cells is the same as
analysis performed on blood cells.

15.  Can I change my DNA by drinking alcohol or taking drugs?

NO.  DNA patterns are not altered by such things as drinking, eating, medication, or age.  However, individuals
who have had a bone marrow transplant should provide a buccal (cheek) sample instead of blood, since the
transplant introduces donor DNA into the blood.

16.   How long does it take to get my test results?

Once Chromosomal Laboratories receives your samples, results will be available in approximately 3-5  business
days.  For those needing faster service, express testing is also available.

17.  What is the difference between a private paternity test and a legal paternity test?

The primary difference between the two types of tests is the sample collection method.  Private paternity test
samples can be collected by the test participants, without any witnesses and are not accredited by AABB at any
laboratory.  Legal paternity test samples are collected by a disinterested 3rd party, where your identification will
be verified, and a photograph may be taken.  The purpose of these stringent  procedures is to ensure that the
participants are who they say they are.  Legal tests are accredited by AABB.

18.  Are Chromosomal Laboratories results admissible in court?

YES.  As long as you choose the Paternity Test LEGAL.

19.  Do I need a doctor's or attorney's order to have the paternity test performed?

NO, unless you live in New York.  While many cases do involve doctors and attorney's, you are not required to
have an order.  You can order paternity testing yourself through our website.  New York State law, requires a
licensed physician's prescription or a court order for all paternity testing.  Clinical laboratories cannot perform
analysis of samples without the original prescription or court order.

20.  Can you accept samples from New York?

YES.  Chromosomal Laboratories, Inc is authorized to perform DNA Parentage/Identity Testing on samples
originating in the State of New York by the New York State Department of Health, PFI: 8237.

20.  Is paternity testing covered by health insurance?

NO.  Paternity testing is not considered a medically necessary procedure and therefore is not covered.

21.  How do you handle the confidentiality of each test?

Information of any kind regarding your test will only be available to the individuals tested or other designated
representative(s) (i.e. Attorneys) when a written authorization is provided.

22.  How will I receive my results?

Reports are sent by mail or email/fax (as requested) to each adult tested and their designated representative.  
Due to the sensitive and confidential nature of the test, results will not be given over the telephone.

23.  Does the test have to be paid for all at once?

YES.  Testing will not being until the test has been paid in full.

24.  What forms of payment does Chromosomal Labs accept?

We accept personal checks*, cashier's checks, money orders, debit cards, Mastercard, Visa, American  Express
and Discover.  You also have the option to pay with cash if you visit our Phoenix office.  *Payment with a personal
check may result in delayed reporting pending clearance of the check.

25.  What if I have more questions?

You can contact us via email, or call us toll free at 1-877-434-0292

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